A Plastic Surgeon deals with the repair, reconstruction or replacement of physical defects of form or function involving the skin, musculoskeletal system, craniomaxillofacial structures, hand, extremities, breast and trunk and external genitalia or cosmetic enhancement of these areas of the body. Cosmetic surgery is an essential component of plastic surgery. The Plastic Surgeon uses cosmetic surgical principles to both improve overall appearance and to optimize the outcome of reconstructive procedures. The surgeon uses aesthetic surgical principles not only to improve undesirable qualities of normal structures but in all reconstructive procedures as well.
Special knowledge and skill in the design and surgery of grafts, flaps and free tissue transfer and replantation is necessary. Competence in the management of complex wounds, the use of implantable materials and in tumor surgery is required. Plastic Surgeons have been prominent in the development of innovative techniques such as microvascular and craniomaxillofacial surgery, liposuction and tissue transfer. Anatomy, physiology, pathology and other basic sciences are fundamental to the specialty.
Competency in Plastic Surgery implies an amalgam of basic medical and surgical knowledge, operative judgment, technical expertise, ethical behavior and interpersonal skills to achieve problem resolution and patient satisfaction.
A General Surgeon has expertise in the diagnosis and care of patients with diseases and disorders affecting the abdomen, digestive tract, endocrine system, breast, skin and blood vessels. A General Surgeon is also trained in the care of pediatric and cancer patients and in the treatment of patients who are injured or critically ill. Common problems treated by general surgeons include hernias, breast tumors, gallstones, appendicitis, pancreatitis, bowel obstructions, colon inflammation and colon cancer. General Surgeons increasingly provide care through the use of minimally invasive and endoscopic techniques. Some General Surgeons pursue additional training for one to two years and specialize in the fields of Trauma Surgery, Transplant Surgery, Surgical Oncology, Pediatric Surgery, Vascular Surgery and others.