Hypertension - medication related; Drug-induced hypertension
Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine.
Blood pressure is determined by the:
- Amount of blood the heart pumps
- Condition of the heart valves
- Pulse rate
- Pumping power of the heart
- Size and condition of the arteries
There are several types of high blood pressure:
- Essential hypertension has no cause that can be found.
- Secondary hypertension occurs because of another disorder.
- Drug-induced hypertension is a form of secondary hypertension caused by a response to a chemical substance or medicine.
Chemical substances and medicines that can cause high blood pressure include:
- Alcohol, amphetamines, ecstasy (MDMA and derivatives), and cocaine
- Angiogenesis inhibitors (including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies)
- Antidepressants (including venlafaxine, bupropion, and desipramine)
- Caffeine (including the caffeine in coffee and energy drinks)
- Ephedra and many other herbal products
- Estrogens (including birth control pills) and other hormones
- Many over-the-counter medicines such as cough/cold and asthma medicines, particularly when the cough/cold medicine is taken with certain antidepressants, such as tranylcypromine or tricyclics
- Migraine medicines
- Nasal decongestants
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Testosterone and other anabolic steroids and performance-enhancing drugs
Rebound hypertension occurs when blood pressure rises after you stop taking or lower the dose of a drug (typically a high blood pressure medicine).
Many other factors can also affect blood pressure, including:
- Condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels
- Foods eaten, weight, and other body-related variables, including the amount of added sodium in processed foods
- Levels of various hormones in the body
- Volume of water in the body
Grossman A, Messerli FH, Grossman E. Drug induced hypertension--an unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;763(Pt A):15-22. PMID: 26096556 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26096556.
Jurca SJ, Elliott WJ. Common substances that may contribute to resistant hypertension, and recommendations for limiting their clinical effects. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2016;18(10):73. PMID: 27671491 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27671491.
Victor RG. Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 43.