Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet
Sodium is an element that the body needs to work properly. Salt contains sodium.
The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work properly.
Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium. Drinking water also contains sodium, but the amount depends on the source.
Sodium is also added to many food products. Some of these added forms are monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. These are in items such as Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes.
Processed meats like bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables also contain added sodium. Fast foods are generally very high in sodium.
Too much sodium in the diet may lead to:
- High blood pressure in some people
- A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease
Sodium in the diet (called dietary sodium) is measured in milligrams (mg). Table salt is 40% sodium. One teaspoon (5 milliliters) of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.
Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg per day. Those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease may need much lower amounts.
There are no specific sodium restrictions for infants, children, and teens, however a certain levels of daily adequate intake for healthy growth have been established. These include:
- Infants younger than 6 months: 120 mg
- Infants age 6 to 12 months: 370 mg
- Children ages 1 to 3 years: 1,000 mg
- Children ages 4 to 8 years: 1,200 mg
- Children and teens ages 9 to 18 years: 1,500 mg
Eating habits and attitudes about food that are formed during childhood are likely to influence eating habits for life. For this reason, it is a good idea for children to avoid consuming too much sodium.
Appel LJ. Diet and blood pressure. In: Bakris GL, Sorrentino MJ, eds. Hypertension: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 21.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76-S99. PMID: 24222015 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222015.
National Academies Press website. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRI-Tables/9_Electrolytes_Water%20Summary.pdf?la=en. Accessed July 12, 2018.