Thrombocytopenia - platelet antibody; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura - platelet antibody
This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood that helps the blood clot.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is needed for this test.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or slight bruising. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
An antibody is a protein produced by your body's immune system to attack harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include bacteria and viruses.
Antibodies may be produced when your immune system mistakenly considers healthy tissue to be a harmful substance. In the case of platelet antibodies, your body created antibodies to attack platelets. As a result, you will have a lower than normal number of platelets in your body. This condition is called thrombocytopenia, and it can cause too much bleeding.
This test is often ordered because you have a bleeding problem.
A negative test is normal. This means that you do not have anti-platelet antibodies in your blood.
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results show that you have anti-platelet antibodies. Anti-platelet antibodies may appear in the blood due to any of the following:
- For unknown reasons (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, or ITP)
- Side effect of certain drugs such as gold, heparin, quinidine, and quinine
There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others. Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Multiple punctures to locate veins
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:885.
Warkentin TE. Thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 132.