A Plastic Surgeon deals with the repair, reconstruction or replacement of physical defects of form or function involving the skin, musculoskeletal system, craniomaxillofacial structures, hand, extremities, breast and trunk and external genitalia or cosmetic enhancement of these areas of the body. Cosmetic surgery is an essential component of plastic surgery. The Plastic Surgeon uses cosmetic surgical principles to both improve overall appearance and to optimize the outcome of reconstructive procedures. The surgeon uses aesthetic surgical principles not only to improve undesirable qualities of normal structures but in all reconstructive procedures as well.
Special knowledge and skill in the design and surgery of grafts, flaps and free tissue transfer and replantation is necessary. Competence in the management of complex wounds, the use of implantable materials and in tumor surgery is required. Plastic Surgeons have been prominent in the development of innovative techniques such as microvascular and craniomaxillofacial surgery, liposuction and tissue transfer. Anatomy, physiology, pathology and other basic sciences are fundamental to the specialty.
Competency in Plastic Surgery implies an amalgam of basic medical and surgical knowledge, operative judgment, technical expertise, ethical behavior and interpersonal skills to achieve problem resolution and patient satisfaction.
American Board of Plastic Surgery
A Pediatric Surgeon is a general surgeon with specialized training in the diagnosis and care of premature and newborn infants, children and adolescents. This care includes Prenatal Surgery (detection and correction of abnormalities during the fetal stage); Neonatal Surgery (repair of birth defects in the newborn); trauma care (treatment of injuries in children); and Pediatric Surgical Oncology (treatment of children with cancer); as well as conditions that are treated in adults by general surgeons, such as appendicitis, hernias, acid reflux and bowel obstructions.